Background of the Practice

To meet the demands of preparing a workforce and maintaining the quality of life for persons with disabilities as outlined by the UNCRPD, training is being provided to B.Ed. and M.Ed. Special Education teacher trainees of RKMVERI -FDMSE. This initiative aims to bridge the gap between the community and persons with disabilities (PwDs) and facilitate a smoother transition for them. Pre-Vocational Training for Developing Transition Skills Among Students with Disabilities aligns well with the objectives and principles of the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 in several ways. The NEP emphasizes inclusive education, ensuring that all students, including those with disabilities, have access to quality education. Pre-vocational training promotes inclusivity by providing tailored support to students with disabilities, helping them transition smoothly into the workforce and society. Also, NEP advocates for the holistic development of students, focusing on their physical, cognitive, emotional, and social growth. Hence, keeping this in view, RKMVERI – FDMSE encourages collaboration between educational institutions, industry, and other stakeholders to create a cohesive ecosystem for education and employment. RKMVERI – FDMSE has taken this initiative that will enhance the skills and work competency of not only persons with disabilities, but also this practice widens the scope of learning experience among the Special Education teacher trainees.


  1. To educate teacher trainees on the intervention principles necessary for delivering effective transition services.
  2. To enable trainees to comprehend the essential vocational skills required for providing vocational training.
  3. To offer hands-on experience to trainees in imparting vocational skills to children with disabilities.
  4. To develop opportunities for interdisciplinary studies to identify effective models for the transition of persons with disabilities (PwDs).

Framework of the Practice

Intervention Principles: The following are the several key principles of intervention for effective transition services.

  1. Teach at natural times, using naturally occurring cues, reinforcers, and consequences
  2. Teach in natural environments and Use real materials
  3. Teach all day and across environments to promote sgeneralisation
  4. Use partial participation (What part of a task can the student do?)
  5. Keep student data to determine effectiveness of intervention
  6. Integrate student with nondisabled peers and expose to functional activities

The following are the important vocational skills necessary for effective transition:

Job search skills: Students with disabilities need instruction in skills like conducting a personal job search, filling out job applications correctly, preparing a resume, and how to give interview etc.

Job maintenance skills: Job success depends more on effective job maintenance skills such as communication and interpersonal skills and good work habits than upon actual job skills. Researches on vocational training emphasis that the vital factors to job success for workers with disabilities are : a) getting along well with others; b) interest in the job; c) efficiency; d) dependability; and e) being able to adapt to new work situations.

Job-related functional academics: Reading and writing on the job, figuring computations, estimating, making change, and using time wisely are functional academic skills that can be taught in the classroom to help students succeed on the job. Students with special needs are unable to generalise transitional academics to the real world of employment and adult living

Mobility and Transportation skills: Students cannot be successful on the job if they are not effectively trained in mobility and transportation skills. Hence, the school curriculum at secondary level should include opportunities for students to learn, practice and generalise the skills of:

Applying for bus passes; reading and interpreting bus route information; using public transit safety including road safety and emergency strategies; using actual routes from home and school to places of work; and travelling independently from home to school to a work site.

The course content of transition covering all the above vital issues have been included in the special education curriculum wherein ample opportunities are provided to the teacher trainees that include hands on experiences to advocacy and rights of PwDs. The institute not only provides training in handling transition among PwDs, but also strives for their vocational placement. In this exercise the teacher trainees get opportunity to develop functional assessment checklists and they undergo standardisation of the same, pertaining to various disabilities in consultation of the experts.

Outcome of the practice

Outcomes of Pre-Vocational Training for Developing Transition Skills Among Students with Disabilities:

  1. Students with disabilities will develop critical job readiness skills, including time management, communication, and task completion, preparing them for the demands of the workplace.
  2. Students will gain confidence and independence through hands-on experience in various vocational tasks, reducing reliance on support and enabling them to perform daily activities independently.
  3. Through collaborative projects and interactions, students will enhance their social skills, fostering better relationships with peers, colleagues, and supervisors in a work environment.
  4. Students will be able to explore different vocational interests and aptitudes, leading to more personalized and appropriate career pathways that align with their strengths and preferences.
  5. By bridging the gap between school and work, students will experience a smoother transition to employment, with a clearer understanding of workplace expectations and the skills needed to succeed

Outcomes of Pre-Vocational Training for Developing Transition Skills Among Students with Disabilities for Faculty Members:

  1. Faculty members will develop advanced instructional strategies tailored to the needs of students with disabilities, enabling more effective teaching of pre-vocational and transition skills.
  2. Faculty will learn to utilize specialized assessment tools and methods to accurately evaluate the progress and skill development of students with disabilities, ensuring targeted and effective intervention.
  3. Faculty members will strengthen their ability to work collaboratively with other educators, specialists, and stakeholders to create comprehensive and supportive transition plans for students.
  4. Faculty will gain a deeper understanding of available vocational resources and community partnerships, allowing them to better support students in accessing real-world training and employment opportunities.
  5. Participation in pre-vocational training programs will contribute to the professional growth of faculty members, keeping them informed about the latest research, techniques, and best practices in special education and vocational training.

Outcomes of Pre-Vocational Training for Developing Transition Skills Among Students with Disabilities for Institution:

  1. Institutions will see higher success rates among students with disabilities in achieving employment and independent living goals, reflecting the effectiveness of their training programs.
  2. By providing comprehensive and effective pre-vocational training, institutions can build a strong reputation for supporting students with disabilities, attracting more students and funding opportunities.
  3. Institutions will foster stronger connections with local businesses and organizations, creating valuable partnerships that offer real-world training and employment opportunities for students.
  4. Implementing pre-vocational training will contribute to a more inclusive and holistic educational approach, ensuring that all students receive the support they need to transition successfully from school to the workforce.
  5. Institutions will demonstrate their commitment to adhering to legal and ethical standards, such as those set by the UNCRPD, by providing targeted support that helps students with disabilities achieve their full potential

Outcomes of Pre-Vocational Training for Developing Transition Skills Among Students with Disabilities for the Community and Other Stakeholders:

  1. The community benefits from a more inclusive and diverse workforce as students with disabilities are better prepared to enter and succeed in various employment sectors.
  2. Improved transition skills among students with disabilities lead to greater social integration, reducing stigma and promoting acceptance and understanding within the community.
  3. Local businesses, organizations, and stakeholders develop stronger partnerships with educational institutions, fostering a collaborative environment that supports the employment and integration of individuals with disabilities.
  4. By facilitating the employment of individuals with disabilities, the community can experience economic growth through increased productivity, reduced dependency on social services, and a broader consumer base.
  5. Stakeholders gain insights into effective inclusive practices and the benefits of a diverse workforce, encouraging other organizations and businesses to adopt similar approaches and create a more inclusive society overall.

Problems Encountered

  1. There are major differences between the education and labour market contexts. Increased efforts should be made to strengthen the relationship between schools and employers.
  2. Lack of training adequate work habits, personal social skills, and job-related social skills.
  3. Less accessibility to get know about the successful employers who provide suitable employment opportunities to the disabled based on effective transitional plan.
  4. Non-availability of a repository of resources on employment avenues for the disabled.

Resources Required

  1. Appropriate vocational training , professional development and work experience for trainers
  2. Physical resources that are of industry standard
  3. Quality supervision of student job placements
  4. Improved collaboration with vocational training providers
  5. Partnership between schools offering vocational training programmes.